Tuesday, July 27, 2010

ROBERT J. HAVIGHURST : Six Major Stages in Human Life

ROBERT J. HAVIGHURST : Six Major Stages in Human Life
BIOgraphy :
Born : Jun 5, 1900. De Pere, Wisconsin.
Died : January 31,1991. Richmond, Indiana.
Nationality : American.
Fields : Physicist
Education : He attended public schools in Wisconsin and Illinois. He obtained many degrees and education achievements: 1918-21 B.A. from Ohio Wesleyan University, 1922 M.A. Ohio State University, 1924 Ph.D., Chemistry Ohio State University, 1953-54 Fulbright Scholar, University of Canterbury, New Zealand, 1961 Fulbright Scholar University of Buenos Aires, 1962 Honorary Degree Sc. Adelphi University, 1963 Hon. L.L.D. Ohio Wesleyan University,2006.
Known For : Human Development and Education
Havighurst Quotes :
"A successful mother sets her children free and becomes free herself in the process."
"The two basic principle processes of education are knowing and valuing."
"The art of friendship has been little cultivated in our society."
Career :
He published a number of papers in journal of physics and chemistry about the structure of the atom in 1924. He went to Harvard University as a postdoctoral fellow, studying atomic structure and publishing papers in journals of physics and chemistry.
He decided to change careers in 1928, so he went into the field of experimental education. He became an assistant professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. In 1940, he became an education professor at the University of Chicago in the Universities Child Development department. He worked in the field of aging. Again, in the same year he was interested in international and comparative aspects of education. He wrote several books and published many papers. His most famous book called "Human Development and Education". He was inducted in the International Adult and Continuing Education Hall of Fame.
§ Infancy & early childhood (Birth till 6 years old)
§ Middle childhood (6-12 years old)
§ Adolescence (13-18 years old)
§ Early Adulthood (19-30 years old)
§ Middle Age (30-60years old)
§ Later maturity (60 years old and over)

From THERE, Havighurst recognized that each human has three sources for developmental tasks. They are:
§ Tasks that arise from physical maturation: Learning to walk, talk, control of bowel and urine, behaving in an acceptable manner to opposite sex, adjusting to menopause.
§ Tasks that arise from personal values: Choosing an occupation, figuring out ones philosophical outlook.
§ Tasks that have their source in the pressures of society: Learning to read, learning to be responsible citizen.
The developmental tasks model that Havighurst developed was age dependent and all served pragmatic functions depending on their age.
Developmental Tasks
(Ages 0-6)
(Ages 0-6)
Learning to crawl.
§ Learning to walk. * Learning to crawl. * Learning to take solid food. * Learning to talk. * Learning to control the elimination of body wastes. * Learning sex differences and sexual modesty. * Getting ready to read. * Forming concepts and learning language to describe social and physical reality. 
(Ages 6-12) 
(Ages 6-12)
Learning physical skills necessary
for ordinary games.
§ Learning physical skills necessary for ordinary games. * Learning to get along with age mates. * Building wholesome attitudes toward oneself as a growing organism. * Learning on appropriate masculine or feminine social role. * Developing concepts necessary for everyday living. * Developing conscience, morality and a scale of values. * Achieving personal independence. * Developing attitudes toward social groups and institutions. 
(Ages 12-18)
(Ages 12-18)
Achieving new and more mature
relations with age mates of both

§ Achieving new and more mature relations with age mates of both sexes. * Achieving a masculine or feminine social role. * Accepting one’s physique and using the body effectively. * Achieving emotional independence of parents and other adults. * Preparing for marriage and family life. * Acquiring a set of values and an ethical system as a guide to behavior. * Desiring and achieving socially responsible behavior.* Selecting an occupation. 
(Ages 18-30)
(Ages 18-30)
Rearing children.
§ Selecting a mate. * Learning to live with a partner. * Starting family. * Rearing children. * Managing home. * Getting started in occupation. * Taking on civic responsibility. * Finding a congenial social group. 
(Ages 30-60)
(Ages 30-60)
Reaching and maintaining
satisfactory performance in
one's occupational career.
§ Assisting teenage children to become responsible and happy adults. * Achieving adult social and civic responsibility. * Reaching and maintaining satisfactory performance in one’s occupational career. * Developing adult leisure time activities. * Relating oneself to one’s spouse as a person. * To accept and adjust to the physiological changes of middle age. * Adjusting to aging parents. 
(60 and over)
(60 and over)
Adjusting to decreasing physical
strength and health.Adjusting to
retirement and reduce income.
§ Adjusting to decreasing physical strength and health. Adjusting to retirement and reduced income. * Adjusting to death of a spouse. * Establishing an explicit affiliation with one’s age group. * Adopting and adapting social roles in a flexible way. * Establishing satisfactory physical living arrangements. 



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