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Tuesday, September 8, 2015

The Crash Near Roswell


The Crash Near Roswell
An unidentified flying object crashed on a ranch northwest of Roswell, New Mexico, sometime during the first week of July 1947.

Rancher W.W. “Mack” Brazel said later he found debris from the crash as he and the son of Floyd and Loretta Proctor rode their horses out to check on sheep after a fierce thunderstorm the night before. Brazel said that as they rode along, he began to notice unusual pieces of what seemed to be metal debris scattered over a large area. Upon further inspection, he said, he saw a shallow trench several hundred feet long had been gouged into the ground.
Brazel said he was struck by the unusual properties of the debris and, after dragging large pieces of it to a shed, he took some of it over to show the Proctors.
Mrs. Proctor, who later moved from the ranch to a house closer to town, said she remembers Brazel showing up with the strange material.

The Proctors told Brazel he might be holding wreckage from an alien spacecraft — a number of UFO sightings had been reported in the United States that summer — or a government project, and that he should report the incident to Chaves County Sheriff George Wilcox.
A day or two later, Brazel drove into Roswell, the county seat, and reported the incident to Wilcox, who reported it to Maj. Jesse Marcel, intelligence officer for the 509th Bomb Group, stationed at Roswell Army Air Field.
In their book, A History of UFO Crashes, UFO researchers Don Schmitt and Kevin Randle say their research shows military radar had been tracking an unidentified flying object in the skies over southern New Mexico for four days. On the night of July 4, 1947, radar indicated the object had gone down about 30-40 miles northwest of Roswell.

The book says eyewitness William Woody, who lived east of Roswell, said he remembered being outside with his father the night of July 4, 1947, when he saw a brilliant object plunge to the ground.
The debris site was closed for several days while the wreckage was cleared, and Schmitt and Randle say that when Woody and his father tried to locate the area of the crash they had seen, Woody said they were stopped by military personnel who ordered them out of the area.

Debris
Schmitt and Randle say Marcel, after receiving the call from Wilcox and subsequent orders from Col. William Blanchard, 509th commanding officer, went to investigate Brazel’s report. Marcel and Capt. Sheridan Cavitt, senior Counter Intelligence Corps (CIC) agent, followed the rancher off-road to his place. They spent the night there and Marcel inspected a large piece of debris Brazel had dragged from the pasture.
Monday morning, July 7, Marcel took his first step onto the debris field. Marcel would remark later that “something ... must have exploded above the ground and fell.” As Brazel, Cavitt and Marcel inspected the field, Marcel was able to “determine which direction it came from, and which direction it was heading. It was in the pattern ... you could tell where it started out and where it ended by how it was thinned out …”

According to Marcel, the debris was “strewn over a wide area, I guess maybe three-quarters of a mile long and a few hundred feet wide.” Scattered in the debris were small bits of metal that Marcel held a cigarette lighter to to see if it would burn.
Along with the metal, Marcel described weightless “I”-beam-like structures that were three-eights inch by one-quarter inch, none of them very long, that would neither bend nor break. Some of these “I”-beams had indecipherable characters along the length, in two colors. Marcel also described metal debris the thickness of tinfoil that was indestructible.

After gathering enough debris to fill his staff car, Marcel decided to stop by his home on the way back to the base so he could show his family the unusual debris. He’d never seen anything quite like it.

“I didn't know what we were picking up,” he said. “I still don't know what it was ... It could not have been part of an aircraft, not part of any kind of weather balloon or experimental balloon ... I’ve seen rockets ... sent up at the White Sands Testing Grounds. It definitely was not part of an aircraft or missile or rocket.”
Under hypnosis conducted by Dr. John Watkins in May 1990, Jesse Marcel Jr. remembered being awakened by his father that night and following him outside to help carry in a large box filled with debris. Once inside, they emptied the contents of the debris onto the kitchen floor.
Jesse Jr. described the lead foil and “I”-beams. Under hypnosis, he recalled the writing on the “I”-beams as “Purple. Strange. Never saw anything like it ... different geometric shapes, leaves and circles.”


Under questioning, he said the symbols were shiny purple and they were small. There were many separate figures. This too, under hypnosis: [Marcel Sr. was saying it was a flying saucer] “I ask him what a flying saucer is. I don't know what a flying saucer is ... It’s a ship. [Dad’s] excited!”
Marcel reported what he found to Blanchard, showing him pieces of the wreckage, none of which looked like anything Blanchard had ever seen.

Bodies
Meanwhile, Glenn Dennis, a young mortician working at Ballard Funeral Home, received some curious calls one afternoon from the RAAF morgue. The base’s mortuary officer was trying to get hold of some small, hermetically sealed coffins and also wanted to know how to preserve bodies that had been exposed to the elements for a few days and avoid contaminating the tissue.
Dennis later said that evening he drove to the base hospital, where he saw large pieces of wreckage with strange engravings on one of the pieces sticking out of the back of a military ambulance. He entered the hospital and was visiting with a nurse he knew when suddenly he was threatened by military police and forced to leave.

The next day, Dennis met with the nurse, who told him about bodies discovered with the wreckage and drew pictures of them on a prescription pad. Within a few days she was transferred to England; her whereabouts remain unknown.

Roswell Army Air Field Press Release
At 11 a.m., July 8, 1947, Lt. Walter Haut, RAAF public information officer, finished a press release Blanchard had ordered him to write, stating that the wreckage of a crashed disk had been recovered.
He gave copies to the two radio stations and both of the local newspapers. By 2:26 p.m., the story was on The Associated Press wire:


“The Army Air Forces here today announced a flying disk had been found.”

As calls began to pour into the base from all over the world, Lt. Robert Shirkey watched as MPs carried loaded wreckage onto a C-54 from the First Transport Unit.
To get a better look, Shirkey stepped around Col. Blanchard, who was irritated with all of the calls coming into the base. Blanchard decided to travel out to the debris field and left instructions that he'd gone on leave.

Headquarters Gets Involved
Blanchard had sent Marcel to Fort Worth Army Air Field (later Carswell Air Force Base) to report to Brig. Gen. Roger M. Ramey, commanding officer of the 8th Air Force.

Marcel told Haut years later that he’d taken some of the debris into Ramey's office to show him what had been found. The material was displayed on Ramey's desk for the general when he returned.
Upon his return, Ramey wanted to see the exact location of the debris field, so he and Marcel went to the map room down the hall — but when they returned, the wreckage that had been placed on the desk was gone and a weather balloon was spread out on the floor. Maj. Charles A. Cashon took the now-famous photo of Marcel with the weather balloon in Ramey's office.


It was then reported that Ramey recognized the remains as part of a weather balloon. Brig. Gen. Thomas DuBose, the chief of staff of the 8th Air Force, said, “[It] was a cover story. The whole balloon part of it. That was the part of the story we were told to give to the public and news and that was it.”
Later that afternoon, Haut’s original press release was rescinded and an officer from the base retrieved all of the copies from the radio stations and newspaper offices. The next day, July 9, a second press release was issued stating that the 509th Bomb Group had mistakenly identified a weather balloon as wreckage of a flying saucer.

On July 9, as reports went out that the crashed object was actually a weather balloon, cleanup crews were busily clearing the debris. Bud Payne, a rancher at Corona, was trying to round up a stray when he was spotted by the military and carried off the Foster ranch. Broadcaster Judd Roberts and Walt Whitmore were turned away as they approached the debris field.

As the wreckage was brought to the base, it was crated and stored in a hangar.
Back in town, Walt Whitmore and Lyman Strickland saw their friend, Mack Brazel, who was being escorted to the Roswell Daily Record by three military officers. He ignored Whitmore and Strickland, which was not at all like Mack, and once he got to the Roswell Daily Record offices, he changed his story. He now claimed to have found the debris on June 14. Brazel also mentioned that he’d found weather observation devices on two other occasions, but what he found this time was no weather balloon.

The Las Vegas Review Journal, along with dozens of other newspapers, carried the AP story:

“Reports of flying saucers whizzing through the sky fell off sharply today as the Army and the Navy began a concentrated campaign to stop the rumors.”

The story also reported that AAF Headquarters in Washington had “delivered a blistering rebuke to officers at Roswell.”

The military has tried to convince the news media from that day forward that the object found near Roswell was nothing more than a weather balloon.


3 Types Of Rhythm You Can Create Visually

3 Types Of Rhythm You Can Create Visually
As soon as you place more than one element on the page you create a pattern and pattern is the seed of rhythm. Whether or not you plan for it, your design will have rhythm running through it. Rhythm activates space. Rhythm creates mood. Rhythm can lead visitors through
your design.
Rhythm is one of the essential principles we have to work with. It’s a word you know, but perhaps one you don’t associate with design. What is rhythm in the context of visual elements and how do we create it?


What is Rhythm?
Rhythm is a regular and repeated pattern, usually of sound or movement. When you think rhythm music is probably the first thing that comes to mind. In music, rhythm is created by alternating sound and non-sound over time. When notes and chords are played in predictable intervals we get rhythm.
How do we define rhythm visually? As a design principle we can say rhythm is the patterned repetition of elements in space. We place elements on the page and experience the intervals between them. Time enters as our eye moves from one element to the next and through this rhythm in space and time we can create a sense of organized movement similar to a musical beat.

There are a variety of places where you can find rhythm.

music — patterns of sound over timed intervals
dance — patterns of movement and gesture through physical space
speech — patterns of cadence in spoken words
writing — patterns of cadence written words
painting — patterns of brush stroke, color, shape, on a canvas
Notice the repetition of the word “patterns” in the list above. Pattern is essential to rhythm. So is repetition. The list above creates a rhythm though repetition. Visually each list item begins with a bullet. The bullet is then followed by a single bolded word, an mdash, and the words “patterns of.” Were I to add another item to the list you would expect it to follow the same predictable pattern.
Notice too, the slight variations created with the length of each line and by the links in a couple of the list items. These variations help break the monotony and add surprise and interest to the rhythm.

3 Types of Rhythm
In design we alternate the positive element with negative space to create patterns, which we then repeat and vary to create rhythm. We create rhythm through:
repetition which creates patterns through predictability
alternation which creates patterns through contrasting pairs (thick/thin, dark/light)
gradation which creates patterns through a progression of regular steps
We’re creating rhythm almost immediately after we begin designing. it’s inevitable once multiple elements appear on the screen. We’d like that rhythm to be a little more planned instead of placing elements randomly though. There are 3 primary types of rhythm you can plan for.

1.Regular rhythm
2.Flowing rhythm
3.Progressive rhythm

Regular rhythm — occurs when the intervals between elements, or the elements themselves, are similar in size or length. Regular rhythm repeats the elements over a predictable interval. Typically both interval and elements are consistent, though one or the other can be varied. The sameness of a regular rhythm creates a less interesting (though not necessarily boring) rhythm.


The regular placement of the same element is usually in a linear path. You can repeat color, shape, pattern or another characteristic of the element over a regular interval. To add more interest you can vary the interval (the space), which changes the pace of the rhythm.
You can also vary the characteristics of the element. You can keep size and shape constant while varying color or keep color and shape consistent while varying size. This variation adds some complexity, but also interest to the rhythm.

Flowing rhythm — occurs when the elements or interval are organic. The organic and natural patterns are used to create a feeling of movement. The elements could be organic over each interval or the interval itself could be organic.


Typically the element is unique, though similar, over each interval. A good example are the stripes on a tiger or zebra. No stripe is quite like the next. Seen together they create a rhythm of natural movement.

Progressive rhythm — occurs when a sequence of forms or shapes is shown through a progression of steps. Here the elements repeat over an interval, but with more variation, usually in progressive steps.


Size, shape or color of the element might have stepped changes over each interval or the interval itself might vary. The steps should be progressive. The characteristics of the element should gradually increase or decrease creating a sense of direction over the sequence. The variation leads to more interest and visual tension and tends to direct the eye along the progression.
A color gradient is an example of a progressive rhythm. Gradually decreasing the size of an element as it recedes into the background is another. The latter creates linear perspective directing your eye to a vanishing point.
As a general rule you can add interest to rhythmic patterns by adding emphasis or contrast that interrupt the pattern at times. This could be a contrasting shape or color or drastically changing the size of one element.
Emphasis through contrast sets the element apart from the pattern and momentarily breaks the rhythm. It can be used to control how the eye flows through the rhythm. More emphasis on a single element makes the eye pause on it before continuing. Too much contrast of this kind can lead to discordance and chaos.
Repetition can also be used to create emphasis through sheer numbers. A lot of local repetition calls attention to the group of elements being repeated.

Summary
Whether you plan for it or not, as soon as you place multiple elements on the page your design will exhibit patterns and rhythm. Human beings seek patterns and will naturally see them in your work. We find regular and predictable patterns soothing.

We create rhythm in our designs by repeating and varying patterns over space. A good visual rhythm will lead the eye through a design. The predictability of the rhythm leads to anticipation, which directs visitors to follow.

Variation adds interest to rhythm. It avoids monotony and offers the occasional surprise. The most effective rhythms will provide some unexpected variations.

I’ve talked here about rhythm in more theoretical and abstract terms. I want to pick up the topic again next week talking a little more about the practical side of adding rhythm to our designs.



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